Campus Advocacy Resources & Education

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Our Public Health Approach

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Prevention

Campus Advocacy, Resources, & Education (CARE) utilizes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) public health approach to interpersonal violence prevention. CARE's prevention education focuses largely on primary prevention that is aimed at the entire campus community. This includes multi-layered approaches to prevention including incoming education for new members to our campus community and ongoing education and training for students, staff, and faculty. CARE's confidential advocacy acts as both secondary and tertiary prevention providing both short-term crisis management and long-term support to survivors who have been impacted by interpersonal violence.


Primary Prevention: Approaches that take place before violence has occurred to prevent initial perpetration or victimization. 

Secondary Prevention: Immediate responses after violence has occurred to deal with the short-term consequences of violence.

Tertiary Prevention: Long-term responses after violence has occurred to deal with the long-term consequences of violence.

Social-Ecological Model

CARE's Prevention strategy aims to educate all populations within the campus community (students, staff, and faculty) on the critical roles that they each play in preventing violence and creating culture change. To prevent sexual violence, we have to understand what circumstances and factors influence its occurrence. Like the CDC, CARE utilizes a socio-ecological model to understand the factors that influence interpersonal violence as it offers a framework for understanding the complex interplay of individual, relationship, social, political, cultural, and environmental factors that influence sexual violence (Dahlberg and Krug 2002). 

To learn more about mandatory and ongoing prevention education for the campus community, please visit Campus-wide Prevention Education. To learn more about CARE's free and confidential advocacy services for students, staff and faculty, please visit our Advocacy page. 

Nine Principles of Prevention

Nine Principles of Prevention
CARE utilizes research-informed and evidence-based approaches to prevention education that are rooted in the public health model and best practice. This includes following the nine principles of prevention.

The Nine Principles of Prevention

1) Comprehensive Services
Strategies should include multiple components and affect multiple settings to address a wide range of risk and protective factors of the target problem.

2) Varied Teaching Methods
Strategies should include multiple teaching methods, including some type of active, skills based component.

3) Sufficient Dosage
Participants need to be exposed to enough of the activity for it to have an effect.

4) Theory Driven
Preventive strategies should have scientific or logical rationale.

5) Positive Relationships
Programs should foster strong, stable, positive relationships.

6) Appropriately Timed
Program activities should happen at a time (developmentally) that can have maximum impact in a participant's life.

7) Socio-culturally Relevant
Programs should be tailored to fit within cultural beliefs and practices of specific groups, as well as local community norms.

8) Outcome Evaluation
A systematic outcome evaluation is necessary to determine whether a program or strategy worked.

9) Well-Trained Staff
Programs need to be implemented by staff members who are sensitive, competent, and have received sufficient training, support, and supervision. Follow up (booster) training and technical assistance to staff are critical.

Citation from Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs